The IoT (Internet of things) is interconnection of physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other smart items enabling these objects to collect and exchange data and commonly referred to as connected devices. The IoT is becoming increasingly popular with potential to affect our daily lives. The size of IoT devices is getting smaller by use of nano-materials like graphene leading to concept of IoNT (Internet of Nano Things). While nano devices can be used for most applications in rugged environments, the use of synthesized materials & electronics could make them unsuitable for applications like health & for natural balanced environments that are sensitive to pollution. This leads to creation of space for IoBNT (Internet of Bio Nano Things) devices, wherein the devices are built from biological cells using synthetic biology.
The applications can be for health monitoring and control of toxic agents and pollutants. The bio-nano devices placed inside the body could collect the health parameters and then transmit over the internet to the clinic, who can then make informed decisions about targeted drug delivery. The bio sensors could also help in sensing diseases inside the body and detection in early stages. The IoBNT devices can also find application in environment monitoring and control, where they could detect damage to the ecosystem and help in controlling the toxic agents and pollutants.
The field also has some challenges relating to transformation of chemical info into electronic signals that can be transmitted over internet. Another challenge is the interface between the bio-nano devices & internet wherein there needs to be definition of standards for information encoding and data exchange with the internet, with this interfacing commonly referred to as Bio-Cyber Interfaces.